19th Century

Scientists:     develop new science, driven by curiosity
Inventors:      develop technology, driven by creativity
Industrialists: apply technology, driven by profit

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1900 - 1950

Engineers defined by degree programs

Education: communication skills
           scientific knowledge
           appreciation of society
           acquaintance with business practice

Technicians:  apply known technology
Scientists:   develop new science
Engineers:    apply known technology
              develop new technology using known science

Context: science is in a form useful to engineers
         science changes slowly
         scope of technology changes slowly
         society changes slowly
         technology conforms to society

Result: Education valid for 40 years
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        Scientists responsible for intellectual base
        One degree program: practice

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19th Century

Scientists:     develop new science, driven by curiosity
Inventors:      develop technology, driven by creativity
Industrialists: apply technology, driven by profit

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1900 - 1950

Engineers defined by degree programs

Education: communication skills
           scientific knowledge
           appreciation of society
           acquaintance with business practice

Technicians:  apply known technology
Scientists:   develop new science
Engineers:    apply known technology
              develop new technology using known science

Context: science is in a form useful to engineers
         science changes slowly
         scope of technology changes slowly
         society changes slowly
         technology conforms to society

Result: Education valid for 40 years
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        Scientists responsible for intellectual base
        One degree program: practice

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1950-1990

Engineers defined by degree programs

context: science is SOMETIMES NOT in a form useful to engineers
         science changes FASTER
         scope of technology EXPANDING
         society changes slowly
         technology conforms to society

Technicians: apply known technology
Scientists:  develop new science
Engineers:   apply known technology
             develop new technology using known science
             DEVELOP NEW SCIENCE APPROPRIATE FOR ENGINEERING

Education: scientific knowledge
           contemporary practice
           design experience
           research

Result: Education valid for 40 years
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        ENGINEERS responsible for intellectual base
        TWO DEGREE PROGRAMS: PRACTICE, RESEARCH

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Current

Engineers defined by degree programs

Context: science is OFTEN NOT in a form useful to engineers
         science changes VERY FAST
         scope of technology EXPLODING
         society changes FASTER
         technology conforms to society

Technicians: apply known technology
Scientists:  develop new science
Engineers:   apply known technology
             develop new technology using known science
             USE FORMERLY IRRELEVANT FIELDS OF SCIENCE
             develop new science appropriate for engineering

Education: EXPANDED SCOPE OF scientific knowledge
           FLEXIBLE SPECIALTIES
           contemporary practice
           design experience
           research

Result: Education valid for LESS THAN 40 years
        ENGINEERS NEED TO LEARN NEW THINGS DURING THEIR CAREERS
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        EDUCATION SUITABLE FOR DIVERSE CAREER PATHS
        engineers responsible for intellectual base
        THREE DEGREE PROGRAMS: BASIC, PRACTICE, RESEARCH

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Current

Engineers defined by degree programs

Context: science is OFTEN NOT in a form useful to engineers
         science changes VERY FAST
         scope of technology EXPLODING
         society changes FASTER
         technology conforms to society

Technicians: apply known technology
Scientists:  develop new science
Engineers:   apply known technology
             develop new technology using known science
             USE FORMERLY IRRELEVANT FIELDS OF SCIENCE
             develop new science appropriate for engineering

Education: EXPANDED SCOPE OF scientific knowledge
           FLEXIBLE SPECIALTIES
           contemporary practice
           design experience
           research

Result: Education valid for LESS THAN 40 years
        ENGINEERS NEED TO LEARN NEW THINGS DURING THEIR CAREERS
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        EDUCATION SUITABLE FOR DIVERSE CAREER PATHS
        engineers responsible for intellectual base
        THREE DEGREE PROGRAMS: BASIC, PRACTICE, RESEARCH

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Future

Engineers defined by degree programs

Context: science is often not in a form useful to engineers
         science changes very fast
         scope of technology UNLIMITED
         society changes VERY FAST
         SOCIETY MUST ADAPT TO NEW TECHNOLOGY

Technicians: apply known technology
Scientists:  develop new science
Engineers:   apply known technology
             develop new technology using known science
             DEVELOP NEW SCIENCE APPROPRIATE FOR ENGINEERING
             HELP SOCIETY ADAPT TO NEW TECHNOLOGY

Education: EXPANDED SCOPE OF scientific knowledge
           contemporary practice
           design experience
           research
           SOCIETAL LEADERSHIP

Result: Education valid for less than 40 years
        Engineers well suited for industrial leadership
        ENGINEERS NEEDED FOR SOCIETAL LEADERSHIP
        engineers responsible for intellectual base
        FOUR DEGREE PROGRAMS: BASIC, PRACTICE, RESEARCH, LEADERSHIP

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